Presented by: Zatu M.L.B, Modiboa B.L ,Modiakgotla L.K,Mophuting E
Water, food and energy are at the core of human needs and there is a boundless complex cycle among these basic human needs. Ecosystems are in the centre of this nexus, since they contribute to the provision of each component, making it imperative to understand the role of ecosystem in securing food, water and energy for human well-being. His study is to support the ecosystem-water-food nexus is taken into account environment flow requirements for riverine ecosystems using the hydrological model soil and water assessment.
The material benefits people obtain from ecosystem are called ‘provisioning services’. They include for example water, food, wood and other goods. Many provisioning services for their livelihood. In this care, services may be much more important is reflected in the prices they fetch on local markets. Ecosystems provide raw materials such as fibres and timber as well as non-timber forest products e.g rubber, latex, rattan and plant oils which are very important for commercial activities and substances in rural communities. The very often use decisions involving the production for commercial products involve trade-offers with provision of other ecosystems services.
Deciduous forests are in Köppen’s C climate category. The corresponding biome is the Deciduous Forest, or Temperate Forest biome. Such forests occur between approximately 25 ° and 50 ° latitude in both hemispheres.
One thing that is interesting about this biome and its climate is that it has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don’t begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world’s deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome.
Climate is a mix of temperature and precipitation. Deciduous forests have almost 14 inches of rain in the winter months and more than 18 inches of rain in the summer.
Forests most significant contribution to water for all living things is in maintaining high water quality. They achieve this through minimizing soil erosion on site, thus reducing sediment in water bodies (wetlands, ponds and lakes, streams and rivers), and through trapping or filtering other water pollutants.
Forests and the way that they are managed can have profound effects on water. Well designed and managed forests help to protect water and the wide range of flora and fauna that depend on this important habitat. In contrast, poor planning and management can contribute to water shortages, local flooding and water pollution, including increased acidification, siltation and nutrient enrichment.
Some native forest diseases are already widespread, such as Armillaria root disease, which affects about 203 million hectares of forest with varying intensity. However, the geographic distribution and host range of other forest diseases are expanding. For example, the foliar (leaf) disease Dothistroma needle blight continues to have economic consequences in the forest sector in northern British Columbia and northern Alberta.
Non-native diseases are continuing to cause damage in managed and unmanaged forests. White pine blister rust has caused extensive mortality in eastern and western white pine populations since its establishment in the early 1900s. The disease is also a major threat to the survival of limber pine and whitebark pine in the Rocky Mountains and a contributing factor to their Endangered status. In Quebec, Annosus root disease is spreading northward at a rate of 10 kilometers per year
Knudstan an suzula (1992) have explored the protective function of culture within a comparative perceptive. Others note that for millennia humanity has had a social and cultural basis for protecting nature .forests are home to millions of people worldwide and many of those people are dependent on the forest for their survival in addition many people have strong cultural and spiritual attachment to the forest .
Many local people understand how to conserve and use forest resources. It has been argued that forests currently are being destroyed in part because of the non-forest dwellers lack of knowledge about how best to exploit the vast. Spiritually is important as well. The hindu view point on nature for example is based on a recognition that nature and its orders of life (such as tress forests and animals are all bounded to each other indigenous belief systems have a major protective role in a culture relationships with the natural world and in nature