Benefits of Biodiversity to people: Savanna (3)

Presented by: Kolotsi, Lesenyego, Konjwayo, Morebodi M

Provisioning services

As a fundamental element of human lives, ecosystems and the services they provide across all regions are under threat from human and natural activity.

This study seeks to identify and characterize provisioning ecosystem services. Findings indicate an extensive use of all provisioning services; bush meat, crop and animal production, fishing , fuel wood , building materials , fresh water and wild plants.

Averagely 80% of people living in these ecosystems utilize the variety of services on a daily basis.

Conservation of savanna is fairly good , mainly due to the presence of the kruger and Kalahari gemsbok national parks within the biome. This is highly conserved are in South Africa . most of the area is used for game-farming provided that sustainable stocking levels are maintained.

Regulating services

The Savannah Biome is the largest Biome in Southern Africa , occupying 46 percent of its area and over one-third the area of South Africa and is also the dominant vegetation in Botswana ,Namibia and Zimbabwe .

In the savanna its dry season most of the time which is in winter , savannas get all their rain in the summer months . During dry season most of the plants shrivel up and die . Some rivers and streams dry up while most of the animals migrate to find food . During the wet season all of the plants are succulent and the rivers flow freely and the animals migrate back to graze

The savanna climate has a temperature range of 20-30 degrees Celsius . In winter it is usually about 20-25 degrees Celsius and in summer its between 25-30 degrees Celsius the temperature in the savanna doesn’t change a lot and there is hardly any rainfall . The savanna has rich volcanic soil which provides the plants with nutrition while the plants provide the animals with food and shelter.

Most of the savanna vegetation types are used for grazing , mainly by cattle or game . In the southernmost savanna types , goats are the major stock . In some types crops and subtropical food are cultivated These mainly include the Clay Thorn Bushveld , parts of Mixed Bushveld and Sweet lowveld Bushveld . Urbanisation is not a problem because the hot moist climate and diseases like sleeping sickness and malaria stopped urban development.

 

 

Cultural services

Society strives it’s continuity and exististence according to the enviormental condition of it’s surroundings.People have descending down from generation to generation with the addition of new ideas and objects.

Parks and recreation services meets essential daily needs through it’s programmes,facilities and services for all citizens to,improve and promote the quality of life for all citizens by maintaining facilities and parks while providing convenient,affordable and accessible recreational and leisure opportunities in a safe enviorment.

Savanna’s are very beautiful and helpful,to protect and provide habitat for migratory birds,for endangered species,to support a natural diversity of plants and animals on refuge land,mind wind-swept grasslands,milkweeds,goldenrods and low shrubs such as blue berry,are very beautiful.

This dynamic process of society enhances culture with refreshment and for every generation a new culture than for the previous.Savanna’s meets daily needs,are religious and have great history and are very anaestetic.

Support services

A savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being abundantly widely spaced so that the canopy does not close up. Enough light can enter and reach the canopy floor to support an unbroken herbaceous layer which primarily consists of grasses. Savanna also maintain their canopies despite high tree densities.

Unique soil conditions sometimes determine whether a sananna will occur or not. Although most tropical and subtropical savanna soils are lacking in nutrients, some have a hard crust or a barrier at a certain depth in the soil. This crust seperates the shallow soil layer that grasses rely on for water from the deeper soil layers that may retain moisture throughout the year. Trees in these sanannas mostly grow where these crusts occur, enabling the trees to access deep soil water. The common soils of the savanna are highly weathered and the leached soils such as lixisols and nitols, with relict quarts, are classified as the dominant skeletal phase. The clay fraction of the soil may consist of kaolinite, halloysite, goethite, hematite and possibly gibbsite. the

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