Scientist involved in Evolution studies


Wasp stings

Wasp stings are common, especially during the warmer months when people are outside for longer periods of time. Wasp stings can be uncomfortable, but most people recover quickly and without complications.

Wasps, like bees and hornets, are equipped with a stinger as a means of self-defense. A wasp’s stinger contains venom (poisonous substance) that’s transmitted to humans during a sting. While a bee can only sting once because its stinger becomes stuck in the skin of its victim, a wasp can sting more than once during an attack. Wasp stingers remain intact.

However, even without a lodged stinger, wasp venom can cause significant pain and irritation.

Symptoms of a wasp sting

The majority of people without sting allergies will show only minor symptoms during and after a wasp sting. The initial sensations can include sharp pain or burning at the sting site. Redness, swelling, and itching can occur as well.

Normal local reactions

You’re likely to develop a raised welt around the sting site. A tiny white mark may be visible in the middle of the welt where the stinger punctured your skin. Usually, the pain and swelling recedes within several hours of being stung.

Large local reactions

“Large local reactions” is a term used to describe more pronounced symptoms associated with a wasp or bee sting. People who have large local reactions may be allergic to wasp stings, but don’t experience life-threatening symptoms, such as anaphylactic shock. Large local reactions to wasp stings include extreme redness and swelling that increase for two or three days after the sting.

Most of the time, large local reactions subside on their own over the course of a week or so. Let your doctor know if you have a large local reaction after a wasp sting. They may direct you to take an over-the-counterantihistamine medication (such as Benadryl) to reduce your discomfort.

Having a large local reaction after a wasp sting one time doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll react to future stings in the same way. You could have one strong reaction and never show the same symptoms again. On the other hand, a large local reaction could be the way your body routinely responds to wasp stings. Try to avoid being stung to prevent these uncomfortable symptoms.

10 minutes after being stung

24 hours after being stung

48 hours after being stung

Five days after being stung

Anaphylaxis following a wasp sting

The most severe allergic reactions to wasp stings are referred to as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis occurs when your body goes into shock in response to the wasp venom. Most people who go into shock after a wasp sting do so very quickly. It’s important to seek immediate emergency care to treat anaphylaxis.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to wasp stings include:

  • severe swelling of the face, lips, or throat
  • hives or itching in areas of the body not affected by the sting
  • breathing difficulties, such as wheezing or gasping
  • dizziness
  • sudden drop in blood pressure
  • lightheadedness
  • loss of consciousness
  • nausea or vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • stomach cramps
  • weak or racing pulse

You may not experience all of these symptoms after a wasp sting, but you’re likely to experience at least some of them after a subsequent sting. According to the Mayo Clinic, people who have gone into anaphylactic shock after one sting are 30 to 60 percent more likely to show the same reaction in the future.

If you have a history of anaphylaxis, carry a kit in the event of a wasp sting. “Bee sting kits” contain epinephrine injections (Epi-Pens) that you can give yourself after a wasp sting. Epinephrine relaxes your muscles and blood vessels, helping your heart and respiration rates return to normal.

Treating wasp stings

Mild to moderate reactions

You can treat mild and moderate reactions to wasp stings at home. Wash the sting area with soap and water to remove as much of the venom as possible. Apply a cold pack to the wound site to reduce swelling and pain. Keep the wound clean and dry to prevent infection. Cover with a bandage if desired.

Use hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion if itching or skin irritation becomes bothersome. Baking soda and colloidal oatmeal are soothing to the skin, and can be used in the bath or through medicated skin creams.

Over-the-counter pain relievers, such asibuprofen, can manage pain associated with wasp stings. Antihistamine drugs, includingdiphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, can reduce itching as well. Take all medications as directed to avoid potential side effects, such as stomach irritation or drowsiness.

Severe reactions

Severe allergic reactions to wasp stings require immediate medical attention. If you have an Epi-Pen, administer it as soon as symptoms begin. If you have a history of wasp allergies, administer the Epi-Pen as soon as you are stung. Then call 911.

Treatment for severe allergic reactions to wasp stings can include:

  • additional epinephrine to calm your immune system
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)if breathing has temporarily stopped
  • oxygen, steroids, or other medications to improve breathing

Complications of wasp stings

In rare cases, wasp stings can contribute to complications involving the nervous system.

A report published in the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health examined unusual cases in which a pediatric patient experienced muscle weakness, pupil dilation, and motor aphasia following a wasp sting. (Motor aphasia is the impairment of speech and writing abilities.)

The patient’s problems were precipitated by a blood clot that was caused by a severe reaction to a wasp sting. These particular complications are extreme and highly unlikely to occur.


Die saga van ‘n karamel 

Weereens het die merk van matriek vraestelle baie interessant geraak.  Hier is so ‘n voorbeeld.  

Die vraag was oor spesiasie in kamele en waarom daar verskille is in hulle voorkoms.  Hier volg die mees traumatiese antwoord :

Tumsi die karamel

Eendag lank lank gelede was daar ‘n karamel met die naam van Tumsi. Sy ma was ‘n volstruis en sy pa was ‘n bok. Sy ouma, die Archaeopteryx is ontdek in Kimberley se gat.  

Tumsi en sy familie het besluit hulle moet emigreer. Terwyl die familie trek het hulle besluit hulle moet water stoor.  Hulle kom aan by die eerste rivier en drink.  Toe kry hulle hul eerste groot bonkel.  Hulle kon swem want die lang  wimpers het die water uit hulle oë gehou. Toe stap hulle baie baie ver. By die tweede rivier in Oos China drink hulle genoeg en vorm twee klein knoppels. Toe gaan hulle dood en word fossiele, maar verhuis  met  Darwin op die skaap (ship)  “Dromedarus” tot in Australië.  

Benefits of Biodiversity to people: Savanna (3)

Presented by: Kolotsi, Lesenyego, Konjwayo, Morebodi M

Provisioning services

As a fundamental element of human lives, ecosystems and the services they provide across all regions are under threat from human and natural activity.

This study seeks to identify and characterize provisioning ecosystem services. Findings indicate an extensive use of all provisioning services; bush meat, crop and animal production, fishing , fuel wood , building materials , fresh water and wild plants.

Averagely 80% of people living in these ecosystems utilize the variety of services on a daily basis.

Conservation of savanna is fairly good , mainly due to the presence of the kruger and Kalahari gemsbok national parks within the biome. This is highly conserved are in South Africa . most of the area is used for game-farming provided that sustainable stocking levels are maintained.

Regulating services

The Savannah Biome is the largest Biome in Southern Africa , occupying 46 percent of its area and over one-third the area of South Africa and is also the dominant vegetation in Botswana ,Namibia and Zimbabwe .

In the savanna its dry season most of the time which is in winter , savannas get all their rain in the summer months . During dry season most of the plants shrivel up and die . Some rivers and streams dry up while most of the animals migrate to find food . During the wet season all of the plants are succulent and the rivers flow freely and the animals migrate back to graze

The savanna climate has a temperature range of 20-30 degrees Celsius . In winter it is usually about 20-25 degrees Celsius and in summer its between 25-30 degrees Celsius the temperature in the savanna doesn’t change a lot and there is hardly any rainfall . The savanna has rich volcanic soil which provides the plants with nutrition while the plants provide the animals with food and shelter.

Most of the savanna vegetation types are used for grazing , mainly by cattle or game . In the southernmost savanna types , goats are the major stock . In some types crops and subtropical food are cultivated These mainly include the Clay Thorn Bushveld , parts of Mixed Bushveld and Sweet lowveld Bushveld . Urbanisation is not a problem because the hot moist climate and diseases like sleeping sickness and malaria stopped urban development.



Cultural services

Society strives it’s continuity and exististence according to the enviormental condition of it’s surroundings.People have descending down from generation to generation with the addition of new ideas and objects.

Parks and recreation services meets essential daily needs through it’s programmes,facilities and services for all citizens to,improve and promote the quality of life for all citizens by maintaining facilities and parks while providing convenient,affordable and accessible recreational and leisure opportunities in a safe enviorment.

Savanna’s are very beautiful and helpful,to protect and provide habitat for migratory birds,for endangered species,to support a natural diversity of plants and animals on refuge land,mind wind-swept grasslands,milkweeds,goldenrods and low shrubs such as blue berry,are very beautiful.

This dynamic process of society enhances culture with refreshment and for every generation a new culture than for the previous.Savanna’s meets daily needs,are religious and have great history and are very anaestetic.

Support services

A savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being abundantly widely spaced so that the canopy does not close up. Enough light can enter and reach the canopy floor to support an unbroken herbaceous layer which primarily consists of grasses. Savanna also maintain their canopies despite high tree densities.

Unique soil conditions sometimes determine whether a sananna will occur or not. Although most tropical and subtropical savanna soils are lacking in nutrients, some have a hard crust or a barrier at a certain depth in the soil. This crust seperates the shallow soil layer that grasses rely on for water from the deeper soil layers that may retain moisture throughout the year. Trees in these sanannas mostly grow where these crusts occur, enabling the trees to access deep soil water. The common soils of the savanna are highly weathered and the leached soils such as lixisols and nitols, with relict quarts, are classified as the dominant skeletal phase. The clay fraction of the soil may consist of kaolinite, halloysite, goethite, hematite and possibly gibbsite. the

Benefits of Biodiversity to people: Forests

Presented by: Zatu M.L.B, Modiboa B.L ,Modiakgotla L.K,Mophuting E

Provisioning services

Water, food and energy are at the core of human needs and there is a boundless complex cycle among these basic human needs. Ecosystems are in the centre of this nexus, since they contribute to the provision of each component, making it imperative to understand the role of ecosystem in securing food, water and energy for human well-being. His study is to support the ecosystem-water-food nexus is taken into account environment flow requirements for riverine ecosystems using the hydrological model soil and water assessment.

The material benefits people obtain from ecosystem are called ‘provisioning services’. They include for example water, food, wood and other goods. Many provisioning services for their livelihood. In this care, services may be much more important is reflected in the prices they fetch on local markets. Ecosystems provide raw materials such as fibres and timber as well as non-timber forest products e.g rubber, latex, rattan and plant oils which are very important for commercial activities and substances in rural communities. The very often use decisions involving the production for commercial products involve trade-offers with provision of other ecosystems services.

Regulating services

Deciduous forests are in Köppen’s C climate category. The corresponding biome is the Deciduous Forest, or Temperate Forest biome. Such forests occur between approximately 25 ° and 50 ° latitude in both hemispheres.

One thing that is interesting about this biome and its climate is that it has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don’t begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world’s deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome.

Climate is a mix of temperature and precipitation. Deciduous forests have almost 14 inches of rain in the winter months and more than 18 inches of rain in the summer.

Forests most significant contribution to water for all living things is in maintaining high water quality. They achieve this through minimizing soil erosion on site, thus reducing sediment in water bodies (wetlands, ponds and lakes, streams and rivers), and through trapping or filtering other water pollutants.

Forests and the way that they are managed can have profound effects on water. Well designed and managed forests help to protect water and the wide range of flora and fauna that depend on this important habitat. In contrast, poor planning and management can contribute to water shortages, local flooding and water pollution, including increased acidification, siltation and nutrient enrichment.

Some native forest diseases are already widespread, such as Armillaria root disease, which affects about 203 million hectares of forest with varying intensity. However, the geographic distribution and host range of other forest diseases are expanding. For example, the foliar (leaf) disease Dothistroma needle blight continues to have economic consequences in the forest sector in northern British Columbia and northern Alberta.

Non-native diseases are continuing to cause damage in managed and unmanaged forests. White pine blister rust has caused extensive mortality in eastern and western white pine populations since its establishment in the early 1900s. The disease is also a major threat to the survival of limber pine and whitebark pine in the Rocky Mountains and a contributing factor to their Endangered status. In Quebec, Annosus root disease is spreading northward at a rate of 10 kilometers per year

Cultural services

Knudstan an suzula (1992) have explored the protective function of culture within a comparative perceptive. Others note that for millennia humanity has had a social and cultural basis for protecting nature .forests are home to millions of people worldwide and many of those people are dependent on the forest for their survival in addition many people have strong cultural and spiritual attachment to the forest .

Many local people understand how to conserve and use forest resources. It has been argued that forests currently are being destroyed in part because of the non-forest dwellers lack of knowledge about how best to exploit the vast. Spiritually is important as well. The hindu view point on nature for example is based on a recognition that nature and its orders of life (such as tress forests and animals are all bounded to each other indigenous belief systems have a major protective role in a culture relationships with the natural world and in nature

Support services