Die Minustrale siklus

This essay is written in Afrikaans. It is based on some answers from questions papers written by “Kleurlinge” that takes Biology. 

Minustrale praatjies is maar skaars in ons tyd, maar word meer gewild by die dag. In die ou tyd was dit verbode om oor sulke dinge te praat.

Die vrou ondergaan met elke volmaan ‘n siklus genaamd minustrasie. Vroue moet verkieslik nie rook of drink tydens hierdie siklus nie. Die siklus verskil van vrou tot vrou want nie almal hou ewelank uit nie. Op 14 jaar leer jy hoe om te minustreer en op 70 kry die vrou menapolse. Dit is belangrik om ‘n siklus te hê voor jy kan paar.

Die siklus begin wanneer oortollige bloed in die aorta buise gepomp word om uitgeskei te word, die naeltjiering breek los van die wand en dan word die kussintjies and kombersies wat reggestaan het vir die baba weer uitgeskei.

Hormone speel ook ‘n belangrike rol. Himofile skei estergeel af en die hipotalus skei perstrogeen af. Die estergeel vervaardig die borste. E an P word afgeskei sodat sy dink sy is swanger en FSH word elke 28 dae afgeskei wat die liggaam net weer herinner sy is nie!

Tydens evolusie skei die eierselle af. Die eierselle word deur die testikels vrygestel. Hierdie eierstokke met eiers is nie soos ‘n man sin nie , want dis inwendig. Die onbevrugte eiersel beweeg deur die buis van Eustachius waar dit ryp word. As bevrugting nie plaasvind nie trek die eierselle terug pancreas toe. As bestuiwing nie plaasgevind het nie, word die vrou emosioneel wankelrig net voor ineenstorting!

Dankie tog!


Eskom Expo 2016

DE VOS Groups , ESKOM EXPO , _ Sport A5 Land(1).jpg

After nurturing their projects for nine months the Life Science Grade 11 learners were ready to present their hard work at the District Expo held at Potchefstroom Boys’ High. Of the 15 groups that originally registered, 12 were represented at district level. All of these projects were selected to participate at Regional level.

The Regional Expo was held at the Madiba Banquet Hall in Potchefstroom on Friday 19 August.  Here are the results:

Certificates for participation

A  Gichuhi and T Makota : The effect of nitric acid on ethanol

N Mtshemla : The effect of cell phone use on reaction time

Z Zenzile: The effect of different salts on stuff

R Matlala: The effect of bleach on Cola

Bronze medals

M Langa and K Sefolo: The effect of aloe vera on tomatoes

R Phetswa: The effect of anaesthetics on the reaction of touch sensitive plants

M Bismillah  and A Cassim: The effect of sound on the growth of plants

G Mmusi and P Maimane: The effect of fertilisers on plant growth

Silver medals

T Mokwaledi and A Lesenyeho: The effect of various mediums on gas production in yeast

K Mashego: The effect of pH on the quality of cotton 


Gold medalsA Saloojee and M Ismail Mahomed : Pyro Tecnics

In addition to this A Saloojee and M Ismail Mahomed were one of the seven groups from the Regionals invited to go to the Annual International Expo, hosted at Birchwood Hotel from 1 to 3 October.

 THANK you gentleman for all your gard work.  

Benefits of Biodiversity to people: Savanna (3)

Presented by: Kolotsi, Lesenyego, Konjwayo, Morebodi M

Provisioning services

As a fundamental element of human lives, ecosystems and the services they provide across all regions are under threat from human and natural activity.

This study seeks to identify and characterize provisioning ecosystem services. Findings indicate an extensive use of all provisioning services; bush meat, crop and animal production, fishing , fuel wood , building materials , fresh water and wild plants.

Averagely 80% of people living in these ecosystems utilize the variety of services on a daily basis.

Conservation of savanna is fairly good , mainly due to the presence of the kruger and Kalahari gemsbok national parks within the biome. This is highly conserved are in South Africa . most of the area is used for game-farming provided that sustainable stocking levels are maintained.

Regulating services

The Savannah Biome is the largest Biome in Southern Africa , occupying 46 percent of its area and over one-third the area of South Africa and is also the dominant vegetation in Botswana ,Namibia and Zimbabwe .

In the savanna its dry season most of the time which is in winter , savannas get all their rain in the summer months . During dry season most of the plants shrivel up and die . Some rivers and streams dry up while most of the animals migrate to find food . During the wet season all of the plants are succulent and the rivers flow freely and the animals migrate back to graze

The savanna climate has a temperature range of 20-30 degrees Celsius . In winter it is usually about 20-25 degrees Celsius and in summer its between 25-30 degrees Celsius the temperature in the savanna doesn’t change a lot and there is hardly any rainfall . The savanna has rich volcanic soil which provides the plants with nutrition while the plants provide the animals with food and shelter.

Most of the savanna vegetation types are used for grazing , mainly by cattle or game . In the southernmost savanna types , goats are the major stock . In some types crops and subtropical food are cultivated These mainly include the Clay Thorn Bushveld , parts of Mixed Bushveld and Sweet lowveld Bushveld . Urbanisation is not a problem because the hot moist climate and diseases like sleeping sickness and malaria stopped urban development.



Cultural services

Society strives it’s continuity and exististence according to the enviormental condition of it’s surroundings.People have descending down from generation to generation with the addition of new ideas and objects.

Parks and recreation services meets essential daily needs through it’s programmes,facilities and services for all citizens to,improve and promote the quality of life for all citizens by maintaining facilities and parks while providing convenient,affordable and accessible recreational and leisure opportunities in a safe enviorment.

Savanna’s are very beautiful and helpful,to protect and provide habitat for migratory birds,for endangered species,to support a natural diversity of plants and animals on refuge land,mind wind-swept grasslands,milkweeds,goldenrods and low shrubs such as blue berry,are very beautiful.

This dynamic process of society enhances culture with refreshment and for every generation a new culture than for the previous.Savanna’s meets daily needs,are religious and have great history and are very anaestetic.

Support services

A savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being abundantly widely spaced so that the canopy does not close up. Enough light can enter and reach the canopy floor to support an unbroken herbaceous layer which primarily consists of grasses. Savanna also maintain their canopies despite high tree densities.

Unique soil conditions sometimes determine whether a sananna will occur or not. Although most tropical and subtropical savanna soils are lacking in nutrients, some have a hard crust or a barrier at a certain depth in the soil. This crust seperates the shallow soil layer that grasses rely on for water from the deeper soil layers that may retain moisture throughout the year. Trees in these sanannas mostly grow where these crusts occur, enabling the trees to access deep soil water. The common soils of the savanna are highly weathered and the leached soils such as lixisols and nitols, with relict quarts, are classified as the dominant skeletal phase. The clay fraction of the soil may consist of kaolinite, halloysite, goethite, hematite and possibly gibbsite. the

Benefits of Biodiversity to people: Savanna (2)

Presented by:  Moeng, Morebodi T, Xheko, Letshaba

Provisioning services

Savannah biomes have various types of soil that are found across its land. Even though savannahs have a wide range of various types of soil it is not suitable for farming. In the savannah biome all animals and plants are extremely dependent on each other for food supply. If one species of animals were to be removed, the entire ecosystem would be altered causing a major break down of the food chain or cycle.

Water in savannah biomes is very scares especially when it isn’t a wet season, some animals go through a long period of time without water during a dry season that they barely make it till a wet season ,because of dehydration. The savannah biome receives about 59 inches of rain, majority of this occurs during the wet season. Plants that grow in savannahs are highly specialized to grow in this environment for a long period of droughts, because they have long tap roots that can reach the deep water tables.

Most African cultures in Africa harvest plants in savannahs for traditional medicines for their own uses. Fuel wood is also found in savannahs for villages around to use as a cooking source or for other uses. There are some cultures that find materials to make clothing.

Most savannahs provide employment for veterinarians, hunters, rangers ect. Places like the Kruger national park supply jobs and helps the country to gain more tourists.

Regulating services

The savannah is a well known place where we mostly find the big five

The savannah biome is mostly made up of grass but there are a few trees and because of the availability of grass in the savannah,there are many grazing animals who take advantage of this abundant food supply,so baisically the savannah provides food for most animals yhat eat grass and all like zebras,giraffes and buffalo’s

The savannah is also rich witg herbivores such as elephants,zebras which can automatically become food to animals like lions tigers and all and mostly all the animals and plants are extremely dependent upon each other for food and supply

As it comes to the climate in the savannah it is very important because if the rainfall decreases or the temperature increases,the animals and plants will not be able to continue to survive and the savannah emails warm all the year long and during rainy seasons or wet seasons,the temperature is more pleasant with an average of 60 degrees Celsius

Support services

One of the most popular disease at the savannah is malaria which is spread by the mosquitoes and the disease can be very fatal if one doesn’t receive treatment in time. So if you at the savannah one can avoid getting malaria by wearing long clothes and all.

Soil formation and Nutrient Cycling in the Savannah

The savannah Biome is the largest biome in southern Africa occupying 46% of its area and over one third the area of South Africa .Its well developed over the low veld and Kalahari region of South Africa and is also the dominant vegetation in Botswana Namibia and Zimbabwe Enviromental factors of the biome are complex altitude ranges from sea level 2000m rainfall varies from 235 to 1000mm per year frost may occur from 0 to 120 days per year and almost every major geological and soil type occurs within the biome. The cycling of nutrients is what helps us define an ecosystem if there’s anything that separates a habitat from an ecosystem it’s the fact that most nutrients and energy are well recycled within ecosystem whist habitats once you ignore solar inputs, often have large in and out flows of nutrients and energy. Nutrients are extremely important in shaping savannah habitats, both at large scales and fine scale. The large scale pattern of nutrient availability lead to different vegetation types in different areas. The most important nutrients cyclers of the savannah the termites in the middle of the dry season there are lots of an eaten grass in the foreground and background around the mound. By gathering up bits of vegetation in one spot they concentrate nutrients at this spot grass growing there is richer and better food than grass growing further away animals know how nutrient rich their food is. The rare locations of mineral deposits utilised by a range of wildlife most famously by elephants. In some places they have dug caves over 160m deep into mountain sides in search of nutrients