Genetics and Inheritance 


Wasp stings

Wasp stings are common, especially during the warmer months when people are outside for longer periods of time. Wasp stings can be uncomfortable, but most people recover quickly and without complications.

Wasps, like bees and hornets, are equipped with a stinger as a means of self-defense. A wasp’s stinger contains venom (poisonous substance) that’s transmitted to humans during a sting. While a bee can only sting once because its stinger becomes stuck in the skin of its victim, a wasp can sting more than once during an attack. Wasp stingers remain intact.

However, even without a lodged stinger, wasp venom can cause significant pain and irritation.

Symptoms of a wasp sting

The majority of people without sting allergies will show only minor symptoms during and after a wasp sting. The initial sensations can include sharp pain or burning at the sting site. Redness, swelling, and itching can occur as well.

Normal local reactions

You’re likely to develop a raised welt around the sting site. A tiny white mark may be visible in the middle of the welt where the stinger punctured your skin. Usually, the pain and swelling recedes within several hours of being stung.

Large local reactions

“Large local reactions” is a term used to describe more pronounced symptoms associated with a wasp or bee sting. People who have large local reactions may be allergic to wasp stings, but don’t experience life-threatening symptoms, such as anaphylactic shock. Large local reactions to wasp stings include extreme redness and swelling that increase for two or three days after the sting.

Most of the time, large local reactions subside on their own over the course of a week or so. Let your doctor know if you have a large local reaction after a wasp sting. They may direct you to take an over-the-counterantihistamine medication (such as Benadryl) to reduce your discomfort.

Having a large local reaction after a wasp sting one time doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll react to future stings in the same way. You could have one strong reaction and never show the same symptoms again. On the other hand, a large local reaction could be the way your body routinely responds to wasp stings. Try to avoid being stung to prevent these uncomfortable symptoms.

10 minutes after being stung

24 hours after being stung

48 hours after being stung

Five days after being stung

Anaphylaxis following a wasp sting

The most severe allergic reactions to wasp stings are referred to as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis occurs when your body goes into shock in response to the wasp venom. Most people who go into shock after a wasp sting do so very quickly. It’s important to seek immediate emergency care to treat anaphylaxis.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to wasp stings include:

  • severe swelling of the face, lips, or throat
  • hives or itching in areas of the body not affected by the sting
  • breathing difficulties, such as wheezing or gasping
  • dizziness
  • sudden drop in blood pressure
  • lightheadedness
  • loss of consciousness
  • nausea or vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • stomach cramps
  • weak or racing pulse

You may not experience all of these symptoms after a wasp sting, but you’re likely to experience at least some of them after a subsequent sting. According to the Mayo Clinic, people who have gone into anaphylactic shock after one sting are 30 to 60 percent more likely to show the same reaction in the future.

If you have a history of anaphylaxis, carry a kit in the event of a wasp sting. “Bee sting kits” contain epinephrine injections (Epi-Pens) that you can give yourself after a wasp sting. Epinephrine relaxes your muscles and blood vessels, helping your heart and respiration rates return to normal.

Treating wasp stings

Mild to moderate reactions

You can treat mild and moderate reactions to wasp stings at home. Wash the sting area with soap and water to remove as much of the venom as possible. Apply a cold pack to the wound site to reduce swelling and pain. Keep the wound clean and dry to prevent infection. Cover with a bandage if desired.

Use hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion if itching or skin irritation becomes bothersome. Baking soda and colloidal oatmeal are soothing to the skin, and can be used in the bath or through medicated skin creams.

Over-the-counter pain relievers, such asibuprofen, can manage pain associated with wasp stings. Antihistamine drugs, includingdiphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, can reduce itching as well. Take all medications as directed to avoid potential side effects, such as stomach irritation or drowsiness.

Severe reactions

Severe allergic reactions to wasp stings require immediate medical attention. If you have an Epi-Pen, administer it as soon as symptoms begin. If you have a history of wasp allergies, administer the Epi-Pen as soon as you are stung. Then call 911.

Treatment for severe allergic reactions to wasp stings can include:

  • additional epinephrine to calm your immune system
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)if breathing has temporarily stopped
  • oxygen, steroids, or other medications to improve breathing

Complications of wasp stings

In rare cases, wasp stings can contribute to complications involving the nervous system.

A report published in the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health examined unusual cases in which a pediatric patient experienced muscle weakness, pupil dilation, and motor aphasia following a wasp sting. (Motor aphasia is the impairment of speech and writing abilities.)

The patient’s problems were precipitated by a blood clot that was caused by a severe reaction to a wasp sting. These particular complications are extreme and highly unlikely to occur.


Surface Area to volume ratio 

Today we study the relationship between surface area and volume in organisms.  

We started with a cut-and-paste activity creating cubes with sides of 2.5 cm by 2.5 cm.  

surface area

    • In words, the surface area of a cube is the area of the six squares that cover it. The area of one of them is a*a, or a 2 . Since these are all the same, you can multiply one of them by six, so the surface area of a cube is 6 times one of the sides squared.

      1. synonyms: outsideexterior.

        the area of an outer part or uppermost layer of something. 

        noun: surface area “the surface area of a cube”


        the amount of space that a substance or object occupies, or that is enclosed within a container. 

        “the sewer could not cope with the volume of rainwater” 

        cube = a 3 

DNA,  RNA and Protein synthesis 

We are studying the structure of DNA. 

DNA extraction from strawberry. 

Materials needed: Zip lock bag, two strawberries, 30 ml water, teaspoon dishwashing liquid (detergent), 2 ml salt, sieve

Step 1: Place strawberry in zip lock and squish. 

Step 2: Mix salt, water and detergent.  Add to zip lock.  Mix with strawberry mush. 

The detergent dissolves the phospholipid layers of the membranes. The salt makes the DNA less hydrophilic.

Step 3: Filter the liquid into the glass beaker using the sieve. 

Add approximately 2 cm cold methylated spirits slowly on top of the strawberry extract.

Use toothpicks to twirl the DNA out of the methylated spirits.

Building a DNA model

School improvement 

While working on our School improvement strategy I had a few challenges to face.  Our school decided to go back to our traditions and we started in the hostel by reapplying stricter rules and guidelines,  while establishing trusted routines.  The current generation of learners now feel that it is cruel.  

Are having high expectations of achievement and behaviour in learners cruel? No.   They are simply what parents pay thousands for in private schools all over the world. This would mean that any institution supporting sustained and successful learning should be considered cruel.  

It should not be that difficult to replicate the success of other schools that already follow this strategy. Our sister school definitely has a long established successful track record. Almost every city in the country already has schools like this, they just aren’t open to everybody. It should be an aim to create a state comprehensive with this sort of ethos in every local authority.

We need to stop accepting that working class kids cannot behave. It really isn’t true. They just need help and support. We need to acknowledge how many schools including our own routinely excuse the unacceptable.

Change is never easy but success is worth it.  

Die saga van ‘n karamel 

Weereens het die merk van matriek vraestelle baie interessant geraak.  Hier is so ‘n voorbeeld.  

Die vraag was oor spesiasie in kamele en waarom daar verskille is in hulle voorkoms.  Hier volg die mees traumatiese antwoord :

Tumsi die karamel

Eendag lank lank gelede was daar ‘n karamel met die naam van Tumsi. Sy ma was ‘n volstruis en sy pa was ‘n bok. Sy ouma, die Archaeopteryx is ontdek in Kimberley se gat.  

Tumsi en sy familie het besluit hulle moet emigreer. Terwyl die familie trek het hulle besluit hulle moet water stoor.  Hulle kom aan by die eerste rivier en drink.  Toe kry hulle hul eerste groot bonkel.  Hulle kon swem want die lang  wimpers het die water uit hulle oë gehou. Toe stap hulle baie baie ver. By die tweede rivier in Oos China drink hulle genoeg en vorm twee klein knoppels. Toe gaan hulle dood en word fossiele, maar verhuis  met  Darwin op die skaap (ship)  “Dromedarus” tot in Australië.